OPERATION OF BUSINESS, INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
Industry 5.0: digital evolution of Russian cable plants and transition to cognitive patterns of manufacturing
Sivayev Y. A., the applicant at the Economics of enterprises Department Ural State University of Economics, Yekaterinburg
During last several years, Russian and foreign scientists pay a lot of attention to the further development of Six Wave of Innovation and transition to a fundamentally new socio-economic stage, called Industry 5.0. The key technological aspects of Industry 5.0 are the following: 1) human-centric approach and further evolution of data technologies of Industry 4.0 stage; 2) integration of human and machine intelligences to create collective intelligence. The cultural, socio-economic and political systems of human community will be irreversible changed wile establishing Industry 5.0.
The cable industry is like chain that links fields of raw materials suppliers and high-technological fields of cable users like as machine building, car industry, building constructing, mining field, military industry and IT. The cable industry is on the way of data transformation, as it is also discussed in state strategy. The technologies of manufacturing execution systems (MES) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) are already widely used in Russian cable industry.
At the present article, author estimates the ability of cable companies to further development of Industry 4.0 data technologies and upcoming transition to cognitive Industry 5.0 production. He also proves the necessity of creation the holistic methods for assessing economic efficiency of data transformation initiatives and comprehension of the machine intelligence as the stakeholder for such methods.
Keywords: Industry 5.0, six wave of innovation, human-centric approach, cognitive production system, digital transformation, machine intelligence, collective intelligence, stakeholder, cognitive framework of production, methodology of effect estimation
Prospects of lean manufacturing in mechanical engineering
Korovina A. A., research assistant Orenburg Branch of the Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg
The paper considers the problem of lean manufacturing in the machine-building industry in Russia and abroad. Mechanical engineering has little experience in the application of lean manufacturing, but it seems to be cost-effective. Now the introduction of resource-saving technologies at machine-building enterprises, including lean manufacturing, is relevant. The purpose of the article is to develop recommendations for promising directions for the development of lean manufacturing in mechanical engineering. The current state of the machine-building sector of the economy in the world and in the Russian Federation has been studied. The importance of theoretical and fundamental issues of lean production in the works of domestic and foreign scientists is noted. The distinctive features and goals taken into account when introducing the concept of lean manufacturing in mechanical engineering are highlighted. Lean manufacturing tools and methods actively used in the machine-building industry are presented. The article also tells about the experience of implementing lean manufacturing at the machine-building enterprise of Orenburg – JSC «Drilling Equipment Plant», engaged in the development of drilling equipment and tools. In order to develop lean manufacturing in this industry, it was proposed to apply the concept of “6 sigma”, which allows effectively and at low cost to ensure the competition of machine-building enterprises in Russia. Considerable attention is paid to the implementation of strategic management, which enables enterprises to adapt to changes in the external environment in a timely manner and achieve sustainable competitive advantages. The use of the latest resource-saving strategies is of practical importance, they will allow enterprises to achieve sustainable competitive advantages for long-term survival and achievement of their goals.
Keywords: lean manufacturing concept, mechanical engineering, lean manufacturing tools, Lean six sigma concept
INNOVATIVE INVESTMENT ACTIVITY
Conceptual principles for digital transformation of high-tech enterprises against Industry 4.0
Goncharov A. S., postgraduate student at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
The study is devoted to formation of the conceptual foundations of the digital transformation of modern high-tech industrial enterprises. The study identifies the main stages of popularization of the concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0), analyzes the relationship of related technologies with the technological solutions of Industry 3.0. Key technologies of digital transformation of a high-tech enterprise are analyzed in detail, namely: cyber-physical systems, industrial internet of things, artificial intelligence, collaborative industrial robots, augmented reality technology.
Keywords: high-tech enterprise, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Industry 4.0, digital transformation, cyber-physical system, industrial internet of things, artificial intelligence, collaborative industrial robots, augmented reality technology
Concept and essence of collaborative industrial robots in situation of 4th industrial revolution
Sertakov O. O., postgraduate student at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
This study is devoted to defining the concept and essence of collaborative industrial robots, the implementation of which represents one of the key trends in the development of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The study identifies the main technological trends of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, as one of which the collaborative industrial robots are investigated. The definition of the term “collaborative industrial robot” is developed. The analysis of already existing studies in this area is carried out.
Keywords: Industry 4.0, digital transformation of production, digital technology, artificial intelligence, production automation, collaborative industrial robot
ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Challenges and barriers of the upcoming Energy Transition 4.0
Aleshinskiy Y.V., student Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Pushkareva M. B., candidate of Economic sciences, associate professor at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Teplyshev V. Yu., NP “ESMO”
The relevance of this work is determined by the global transformation in the field of energy. This can be seen from the statistics of energy generation from renewable energy sources (RES): over the past 3 years the share of RES was about 30%. The article provides an overview of the upcoming Energy transition 4.0. The current tasks the energy industry and their possible solutions are presented.
Keywords: energy transition, economics, renewable energy, politics, technology
EDUCATION AND PERSONNEL TRAINING
Quality training of engineers for the Russian economy as a part of import substitution
Vartanyan A. A., doctor of Economic sciences, professor the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Golov R. S., doctor of Economic sciences, head of the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Quality training of engineers as a part of import substitution is necessary for the rise of science and education, the development of high-tech enterprises of the domestic economy, as well as for their adaptation to work on the production of new machines and equipment during the West sanctions period. Individual-targeted training based on the modern material and technical base of technical universities and their partners can fully cover the needs of customers in specialists with all the necessary professional competencies for a particular workplace, including universities – the need for researchers and teachers who have received consistent education within getting specialist degree, postgraduate and doctoral studies.
It should be noted that the competencies of bachelors and masters, including those selected from bachelors who graduated from various non-core educational institutions with different specialization, do not always match for successful work at high-tech enterprises and technical universities as research and teaching staff, developers of new products, technologies and solutions. Fundamental knowledge, practical skills and sufficient funding of universities determine the quality of work of engineers, researchers and teachers.
Thus, in addition to bachelors and masters, the Russian economy needs highly qualified specialists – engineers who have received as a part of specialist degree fundamental knowledge from natural sciences, allowing them to develop complex technological projects, new products and solutions.
Individually-targeted, object-oriented and project-team methods of training in specialty programs, integration of universities and industrial enterprises on the basis of professional and educational standards for obtaining additional knowledge, increasing the motivation of students, internships with potential customers, writing final qualifying papers on their topics and under the scientific guidance of both the university and the enterprise become a guarantee of quality training for enterprises of the domestic economy and higher education.
Keywords: human, material and technical capacity of an enterprise, specialist degree, competencies, information and management technologies, individually-targeted training, added value of a graduate, portal-platform for training and distribution of the staff
Scientific and methodological support of work in the context of digital transformation
Zubeeva E. V., candidate of Economic sciences, associate professor at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Volokhova S. V., candidate of Pedagogical sciences, associate professor at the Physical education Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
Lavrova L. A., senior lecturer at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
This article reveals the importance of clarifying the vectors of university development in the context of digital transformation and in relation to scientific and methodological support of work in this area. In particular, recommendations for scientific and methodological support are suggested, and possible priority projects for the Moscow Aviation Institute are listed. Among them are the expansion of the labor market, the mobile education programs, and the image strengthening. It is noted that the implementation of these projects is a big step towards the formation of an educational cluster.
Keywords: scientific and methodological support, labor market, mobile education, image, social competitiveness
The impact of labor training on the mechanical engineering development: the experiences in the USA, Japan and Germany
Gusev N.O., master student at the Economics and tourism Institute Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs, Vladimir
Rodionova N.V., doctor of Economic sciences, professor at the Management and marketing Department at the Economics and tourism Institute Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs, Vladimir
The article highlights the current state of mechanical engineering in the USA, Japan and Germany in connection with solution of the staffing problem. The general characteristics of labor training systems in these countries are given, and the experience for Russian engineering companies is recommended.
Keywords: international sanctions, mechanical engineering, labor training system; organizational, economic and financial mechanisms; motivation for employee development
Managing problems in the implementation of the Chinese initiative “One belt and One road” related to Russia’s participation
Jun Zhou, postgraduate student at the Economics and tourism Institute Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs, Vladimir
Rodionova N. V., doctor of Economic sciences, professor at the Management and marketing Department at the Economics and tourism Institute Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolay Stoletovs, Vladimir
The Chinese Initiative “One belt and One road” is considered in the context of justifying Russia’s participation in it from the point of view of forecasts about the expected economic and social effects from this Initiative implementation, as well as its significance for the sustainable development of all countries. The ideological mission of the Initiative is considered as an argument “pros”, which not only tries to reproduce the stage of peaceful communication between various civilizations, Asia and Europe, on the symbolic ancient Silk Road, but also to unite other regions in this cooperation, such as Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, opening up opportunities for joint creation to all peoples through participation in a variety of projects, contributing to the transformation of the imposed model of global governance, based on the hegemony and consumerism ideology, into a joint peaceful creation model of our common Home called Earth. But the Initiative implementation does not go smoothly and is often accompanied by various risks. Management problems that create the greatest risks for Russia’s participation in the Chinese Initiative are identified and systematized with the help of PEST analysis. Recommendations for their solution are suggested. The needs to launch a series of pilot Russian-Chinese corporate social responsibility pro-jects within the framework of the Initiative, and to create a system for diagnosing risks at an early stage of their occurrence and a bank of measures to prevent, reduce and overcome them is justified.
Keywords: One belt and One Road, effect forecasts, implementation results, prospects, Russian participation, management problems, PEST analysis, risk
Approaches to improving the classification of civil UAVs
Khursevich S. N., candidate of Economic sciences, general director (2017–2019) Joint stock company «Scientific and research institute of parachute design and production» (JSC «NII parachutostroyeniya»), Moscow
Shnyrev A. G., candidate of Economic sciences, deputy head (2018–2021) Federal Service for Supervision of Transport (Rostransnadzor), Moscow
In the domestic state regulation of the development, production, and operation of civil UAVs, point borrowings from foreign regulations are combined with unsystematic domestic innovations. This is exacerbated by a practice that eclectically combines the traditions of the Soviet aviation industry and aircraft modeling. In the context of the expressed need of society to increase the fleet of nmanned aerial vehicles and rise the intensity of their operation, the imperfection of regulation reduces the dynamics of development and investment attractiveness of UAV production in the Russian Federation and creates conditions for the criminalization of the industry. To correct the situation, it is necessary toprovide a systematic approach to regulation, which allows creating conditions for the advanced development of the industry and ensuring acceptable flight safety risks for society.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, classification, state regulation, flight safety
Contribution of balance to contemporary ecosystem (Part 1)
Smirnov V. G., doctor of Economic sciences, professor at the Management and marketing of high-tech industries Department Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow
The article is devoted to one of the understudied and underestimated by society concepts of balance, which accompanies us at every step. The air we breathe, the satisfaction of the first needs, the balance of the 1st kind in nature, the concept of beauty, etc. – all this is a manifestation of balance.
Keywords: balance of interests, balance of principles of coordination, balance of factors of production, balance of parameters, balance of spheres of activity, proportionality, symmetry, harmonization, homeostasis in nature, accounting balance, fuel and energy balance, environmental balance